• G1

    Teams may only enter the FIELD if the PLAYER STATION LED strings are green.

    Violation: YELLOW CARD

  • G10

    The following actions are prohibited with regards to interaction with FIELD elements (items A-D exclude BALLS):

    1. grabbing,
    2. grasping
    3. grappling
    4. attaching to,
    5. damaging,
    6. becoming entangled

    Violation: FOUL. If the Head Referee determines that further damage is likely to occur, DISABLED. Corrective action (such as eliminating sharp edges, removing the damaging mechanism, and/or re-Inspection) may be required before the ROBOT will be allowed to compete in subsequent MATCHES.

    ROBOTS may push or react against any element of the FIELD.

    BALLS are expected to undergo a reasonable amount of wear and tear as they are handled by ROBOTS, such as scratches and occasional marks. ROBOTS that pop, rip, or routinely mark BALLS will be considered in violation of G10.


  • G11

    BALLS may not be intentionally or repeatedly ejected from gameplay.

    Violation: FOUL per instance.

    Passing a BALL to a HUMAN PLAYER is within gameplay and not considered a violation of G11


  • G12

    An ALLIANCE may not POSSESS their opponent’s BALLS. The following criteria define POSSESSION :

    1. “carrying” (moving while supporting BALLS in or on the ROBOT or holding the BALL in or on the ROBOT),
    2. “herding” (repeated pushing or bumping),
    3. “launching” (impelling BALLS to a desired location or direction via a MECHANISM in motion relative to the ROBOT), or
    4. “trapping” (overt isolation or holding one or more BALLS against a FIELD element or ROBOT in an attempt to shield them).


    Violation: FOUL, if unintentional and inconsequential (i.e. does not significantly impact MATCH play). TECHNICAL FOUL per consequential instance. TECHNICAL FOUL per extended instance. If strategic, RED CARD for the ALLIANCE.

    Examples of BALL interaction that are not POSSESSION are

    A. “bulldozing” (inadvertently coming in contact with BALLS that happen to be in the path of the ROBOT as it moves about the FIELD) and

    B. “deflecting” (a single hit to or being hit by a BALL that bounces or rolls off the ROBOT or a BALL slips through the grips of a ROBOT without arresting the BALL'S momentum).

    A BALL that becomes unintentionally lodged on a ROBOT will be considered POSSESSED by the ROBOT. It is important to design your ROBOT so that it is impossible to inadvertently or intentionally POSSESS an opponent’s BALL.

    The intent of G12 is to prevent an ALLIANCE from inhibiting an opponent’s ability to interact with their BALL, but accommodate accidental and inconsequential actions by way of fewer FOUL points. Actions which are perceived as consequential and extended are distinct violations, as there are scenarios where POSSESSION of an opponent’s BALL could be consequential or extended but not necessarily both.  


  • G13

    All Teams must be civil towards other Teams, competition personnel, and event attendees.

    Violation: Potential RED CARD for violations in the ARENA.

    Teams will not receive RED/YELLOW CARDS for off-ARENA actions; however, designated competition personnel will hold them accountable for their off-ARENA actions.


  • G14

    Strategies aimed solely at forcing the opposing ALLIANCE to violate a rule are not in the spirit of FRC and are not allowed. Rule violations forced in this manner will not result in assessment of a penalty on the target ALLIANCE.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

  • G15

    During AUTO,

    1. a ROBOT starting in the white ZONE may not cross fully beyond the TRUSS
    2. a ROBOT starting in its GOALIE ZONE must remain in contact with the carpet in its GOALIE ZONE.

    Violation: FOUL. If contact with an opponent ROBOT, TECHNICAL FOUL.

  • G16

    During AUTO, TEAM members in the ALLIANCE STATION must remain behind the STARTING LINE and may not contact the OPERATOR CONSOLE.

    Violation: FOUL. If contact with the OPERATOR CONSOLE, TECHNICAL FOUL.

    Exceptions will be made for person or equipment safety situations (e.g. catching a falling OPERATOR CONSOLE).


  • G17

    During AUTO, any control devices worn or held by the DRIVERS must be disconnected from the OPERATOR CONSOLE.

    Violation: FOUL

  • G18

    ROBOTS may be neither fully nor partially supported by other ROBOTS.

    Violation:  If extended, strategic, or repeated, TECHNICAL FOUL.

  • G19

    ROBOTS may not intentionally detach or leave parts on the FIELD.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

  • G2

    Teams may not climb on any FIELD element.

    Violation: YELLOW CARD

  • G20

    ROBOTS must be in compliance with Section 4.6: BUMPER Rules throughout the MATCH.

    Violation: DISABLED

  • G21

    ROBOTS may not extend outside the FIELD.

    Violation: If intentional or if ROBOT extends into the SAFETY ZONE, FOUL. If continuous or repeated violations, TECHNICAL FOUL. If contact with anything outside the SAFETY ZONE, RED CARD and the ROBOT will be DISABLED. 

  • G22

    If a ROBOT is not in contact with the carpet in its GOALIE ZONE, its height (as defined in relation to the FIELD) must not exceed 5 ft.

    Violation: FOUL. If continuous or repeated violations, TECHNICAL FOUL.

  • G23

    If a ROBOT is in contact with carpet in its GOALIE ZONE, and for only one ROBOT per ALLIANCE at a time, there is no height restriction; however, any extension or combination of extensions above 5 ft. may not extend beyond a vertical cylinder with a 6 in. diameter (see examples in Figure 3-5).

    Violation: FOUL. If continuous or repeated violations, TECHNICAL FOUL.

    Figure 3-5: Height Extension Examples

  • G24

    A ROBOT’S horizontal dimensions may never exceed 20 in. beyond its FRAME PERIMETER (see illustration in Figure 3-6).

    Violation: FOUL. If continuous or repeated violations, TECHNICAL FOUL.

    Figure 3-6: FRAME PERIMETER Extension

  • G25

    ROBOTS on the same ALLIANCE may not blockade the FIELD in an attempt to stop the flow of the MATCH. This rule has no effect on individual ROBOT-ROBOT interaction.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

  • G26

    ROBOTS may not intentionally fall down or tip over to block the FIELD.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

  • G26-1

    ROBOTS may not break the planes of the openings of the opponent’s LOW GOAL in an attempt to impede opponent SCORING in that GOAL.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL.

    Situations violating this rule include, but are not limited to, having part of the ROBOT inside the opponent’s LOW GOAL for an extended period of time (regardless of intent) and having part of the ROBOT inside the LOW GOAL while an opponent ROBOT is attempting to SCORE a BALL in that GOAL. Minor incursions of the ROBOT into the opponent’s LOW GOAL while attempting to POSSESS its own ALLIANCE’S BALL are generally not violations of this rule, unless that incursion also impedes the opponent’s opportunity to SCORE.



  • G27

    Strategies aimed at and/or game play resulting in the damage, destruction or inhibition of opponent ROBOTS via actions such as high-speed or repeated, aggressive ramming, attachment, tipping, or entanglement of ROBOTS are not allowed.

    Violation: FOUL. If strategic, TECHNICAL FOUL. Potential YELLOW CARD.

    For example, use of a wedge-like MECHANISM to flip ROBOTS would be considered a violation of G27.

    MECHANISMS outside the FRAME PERIMETER are particularly susceptible to causing such damage and drawing this penalty and/or penalties associated with violations of G28. Teams are encouraged to be cautious in their use of such appendages when engaging in ROBOT to ROBOT MATCH play.


  • G28

    Initiating deliberate or damaging contact with an opponent ROBOT on or inside the vertical extension of its FRAME PERIMETER is not allowed.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

    High speed accidental collisions may occur during the MATCH and are expected. Generally, ROBOTS extend elements outside of the FRAME PERIMETER at their own risk.

    A ROBOT with an element outside its FRAME PERIMETER may be penalized under this rule if it appears they are using that element to purposefully contact another ROBOT inside its FRAME PERIMETER. Regardless of intent, a ROBOT with an element outside its FRAME PERIMETER that causes damage to another ROBOT inside of its FRAME PERIMETER will be penalized, unless the actions of the damaged ROBOT are the catalyst for the damage.


  • G29

    An ALLIANCE may not pin an opponent ROBOT for more than five (5) seconds. A ROBOT will be considered pinned until the ROBOTS have separated by at least six (6) ft. The pinning ROBOT(S) must then wait for at least three (3) seconds before attempting to pin the same ROBOT again. Pinning is transitive through other objects.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

    If the pinned ROBOT chases the pinning ROBOT upon retreat, the pinning ROBOT will not be penalized per G29, and the pin will be considered complete.


  • G3

    ROBOTS whose operation or design is unsafe are not permitted.

    Violation: FOUL & DISABLED. If the issue is due to design: Re-Inspection.

    An example of unsafe operation would be uncontrolled motion that cannot be stopped by the DRIVERS.


  • G30

    Fallen (i.e. tipped over) ROBOTS attempting to right themselves (either by themselves or with assistance from an ALLIANCE partner) have one (1) ten (10)-second grace period per fallen ROBOT in which the fallen ROBOT may not be contacted by an opposing ROBOT.

    This protection lasts for either ten (10) seconds or until the protected ROBOT has completed the righting operation, whichever comes first.

    Violation: If inadvertent, FOUL. If intentional, TECHNICAL FOUL.

    Once the 10-second grace period for righting a fallen ROBOT has expired, opposing ROBOTS may interact with a fallen ROBOT with no FOUL assessed as long as G27 is not violated (as applied to the fallen over ROBOT).


  • G31

    Strategies employing TEAM member actions to inhibit ROBOTS are not allowed.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL.

  • G32

    Strategies employing TEAM member actions to deflect opponents’ BALLS are not allowed.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

  • G33

    The COACH must wear the designated “COACH” button while in the ARENA.

    Violation: MATCH will not start until the situation is corrected.

  • G34

    COACHES may not touch BALLS. Inadvertent or inconsequential contact will not be penalized.

    Violation: FOUL

  • G35

    BALLS may only be retrieved from the PEDESTAL and only if the PEDESTAL is lit in the ALLIANCE’s color.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL. If the BALL is entered into the FIELD, a second TECHNICAL FOUL and the BALL is considered FIELD debris. 

  • G36

    A BALL inbounded after retrieval from the PEDESTAL must first contact a ROBOT or the carpet on its DRIVERS’ end of the FIELD before crossing beyond the TRUSS.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL 

  • G37

    A BALL inbounded after retrieval from the PEDESTAL must be entered on to the FIELD from the side of the FIELD (i.e. over the GUARDRAIL).

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL 

  • G38

    TEAM members may not pass the BALL to a HUMAN PLAYER in another HUMAN PLAYER AREA (passing the BALL within an ALLIANCE STATION or HUMAN PLAYER AREA is permitted).

    Violation: FOUL

  • G39

    During the MATCH, TEAMS must remain in contact with the area of the FIELD (ALLIANCE STATION or HUMAN PLAYER AREA) in which they started the MATCH. Exceptions will be granted for inadvertent, momentary, and inconsequential infractions and in cases concerning safety.

    Violation: FOUL

  • G4

    When placed on the FIELD, each ROBOT must be:

    1. in compliance with all ROBOT rules (i.e. have passed Inspection),
    2. confined to its STARTING CONFIGURATION,
    3. positioned such that the only contact between the ROBOT and the carpet is in their GOALIE ZONE,
      positioned such that the only contact between the ROBOT and the carpet is in the white ZONE with the ROBOT between the TRUSS and their GOALS, and
    4. fully supported by the floor.

    TEAMS positioning ROBOTS in the white ZONE have precedence over opponents placing ROBOTS in the GOALIE ZONE.

    Violation: If fix is a quick remedy: the MATCH won’t start until all requirements are met. If it is not a quick remedy: the ROBOT will be DISABLED and must be re-Inspected.

  • G40

    During the MATCH, TEAMS may not extend any body part

    1. into a space defined by the Human Player Barrier Brackets, the SAFETY ZONE, and the GUARDRAIL that is either occupied by a ROBOT or adjacent to such a space occupied by a ROBOT,
    2. beyond the GUARDRAIL at any time.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL.

    If not actively engaged with receiving or releasing a BALL, we strongly recommend that TEAMS stay fully behind the HUMAN PLAYER BARRIER during the MATCH. 


    Figure 3-7

  • G41

    TEAMS may not contact any ROBOT or any BALL in contact with a ROBOT at any time during the MATCH.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

  • G42

    During a MATCH, the ROBOT shall be operated solely by the DRIVERS of that TEAM.

    Violation: TECHNICAL FOUL

    Exceptions may be made before a MATCH for major conflicts, e.g. religious holidays, major testing, transportation issues, etc.


  • G5

    For ROBOTS starting in the white ZONE, the TEAM may preload one (1) of their ALLIANCE’s BALLS such that the BALL is touching their ROBOT.

    For ROBOTS starting in their GOALIE ZONE the TEAM may decide if the BALL is: staged between the TRUSS and the ZONE LINE and not contacting an ALLIANCE partner, or removed from the FIELD for the MATCH.

    If a ROBOT does not report to a MATCH, its ALLIANCE may decide if the BALL is: staged between the TRUSS and the ZONE LINE and not contacting an ALLIANCE partner, or removed from the FIELD for the MATCH.

    Violation: If the situation is not corrected before the start of the MATCH, TECHNICAL FOUL per BALL improperly staged.

  • G6

    TEAMS may not cause significant or repeated delays to the start of a MATCH.

    Violation: ROBOT will be DISABLED.

    TEAMS are expected to stage their ROBOTS for a MATCH safely and swiftly. TEAM efforts that, either intentionally or unintentionally, delay the start of a MATCH will not be tolerated. Examples of such delays include, but are not limited to:

    A. use of alignment devices such as templates, tape measures, laser pointers, etc. to precisely place and/or align the ROBOT

    B. late arrival to the FIELD

    C. being indecisive about where/how to position a ROBOT

    D. installing BUMPERS, charging pneumatic systems, or any other ROBOT maintenance or assembly, once on the FIELD


  • G7

    TEAMS may not leave items other than ROBOTS on the FIELD prior to or during the MATCH.

    Violation: The MATCH will not start until the situation is corrected.

  • G8

    Each TEAM member must be in designated areas:

    1. COACHES and DRIVERS must be in the ALLIANCE STATION and behind the STARTING LINE.
    2. HUMAN PLAYERS must be either in one of their HUMAN PLAYER AREAS or in the ALLIANCE STATION and behind the STARTING LINE.

    Violation: MATCH will not start until the situation is corrected.

  • G9

    Only TEAM members and their ROBOT may report to the ARENA for a MATCH. TEAM members are limited to:

    1. 1 COACH,
    2. 2 DRIVERS, and

    Violation: MATCH will not start until the situation is corrected.

  • R1

    Each registered FRC team may enter only one (1) ROBOT (or ‘Robot’, which to a reasonably astute observer, is a Robot built for FRC) into the 2014 FRC. The ROBOT must be built by the FRC Team to perform specific tasks when competing in AERIAL ASSIST. The ROBOT must include all of the basic systems required to be an active participant in the game – power, communications, control, and mobility. The ROBOT implementation must obviously follow a design approach intended to play AERIAL ASSIST (e.g. a box of unassembled parts placed on the FIELD, or a ROBOT designed to play a different game would not satisfy this definition).

  • R10

    The total cost of all items on the ROBOT shall not exceed $4000 USD. All costs are to be determined as explained in Section 4.3: Budget Constraints. Exceptions are as follows:

    1. individual COTS items that are less than $1 each and
    2. Kit of Parts (KOP) items


    Teams should be prepared to disclose to Inspectors the cost of any non-KOP item and the total cost of the ROBOT.

    There is no quantity limit on KOP items in regards to R10. If the item is a KOP item, it does not require an associated cost on the BOM.

    Per T9, Teams must be prepared to display a Bill of Materials (BOM) to Inspectors during Inspection.  The BOM may be displayed in either printed or electronic form.

    Individual COMPONENTS or MECHANISMS, not excluded in R10, that are retrieved from previous ROBOTS and used on 2014 ROBOTS must have their undepreciated cost included in the 2014 BOM and applied to the overall cost assessment.


  • R11

    No individual, non-KOP item shall have a value that exceeds $400 USD. The total cost of COMPONENTS purchased in bulk may exceed $400 as long as the cost of an individual COMPONENT does not exceed $400.

    If a COTS item is part of a modular system that can be assembled in several possible configurations, then each individual module must fit within the price constraints defined in R11

    If the modules are designed to assemble into a single configuration, and the assembly is functional in only that configuration, then the total cost of the complete assembly including all modules must fit within the price constraints defined in R11.

    In summary, if a VENDOR sells a system or a kit, a team must use the entire system/kit Fair Market Value and not the value of its COMPONENT pieces.

    Example 1: VENDOR A sells a gearbox that can be used with a number of different gear sets, and can mate with two different motors they sell. A team purchases the gearbox, a gear set, and a motor (which are not offered together as an assembly or kit), then assembles them together.  Each part is treated separately for the purpose of BOM costing, since the purchased pieces can each be used in various configurations.

    Example 2: VENDOR B sells a robotic arm assembly that the team wants to use.  However, it costs $700, so they cannot use it.  The Vendor sells the “hand”, “wrist”, and “arm” as separate assemblies, for $200 each.  A team wishes to purchase the three items separately, then reassemble them.  This would not be legal, as they are really buying and using the entire assembly, which has a Fair Market Value of $700.


  • R12

    The BOM cost of each non-KOP item must be calculated based on the unit fair market value for the material and/or labor, except for labor provided by team members (including sponsor employees who are members of the team) and shipping.

    Example 1:  A Team orders a custom bracket made by a company to the Team's specification.  The company’s material cost and normally charged labor rate apply.

    Example 2:  A Team receives a donated sensor.  The company would normally sell this item for $52, which is therefore its fair market value.

    Example 3:  Special price discounts from National Instruments and other FRC Suppliers are being offered to all FIRST Teams.  The discounted purchase price of items from these sources may be used in the additional parts accounting calculations. 

    Example 4:  A Team purchases steel bar stock for $10 and has it machined by a local machine shop.  The machine shop is not considered a team Sponsor, but donates two (2) hours of expended labor anyway.  The Team must include the estimated normal cost of the labor as if it were paid to the machine shop, and add it to the $10.  

    Example 5: A Team purchases steel bar stock for $10 and has it machined by a local machine shop that is a recognized Sponsor of the Team.  If the machinists are considered members of the Team, their labor costs do not apply.  The total applicable cost for the part would be $10.

    It is in the best interests of the Teams and FIRST to form relationships with as many organizations as possible.  Teams are encouraged to be expansive in recruiting and including organizations in their team, as that exposes more people and organizations to FIRST.  Recognizing supporting companies as Sponsors of, and members in, the Team is encouraged, even if the involvement of the Sponsor is solely through the donation of fabrication labor.

    Example 6: A Team purchases a 4 by 4 ft sheet of aluminum, but only uses a piece 10 by 10 in. on their ROBOT.  The Team identifies a source that sells aluminum sheet in 1 by 1 ft pieces.  The Team may cost their part on the basis of a 1 by 1 ft piece, even though they cut the piece from a larger bulk purchase.  They do not have to account for the entire 4 by 4 ft bulk purchase item.


  • R13

    ROBOT elements created before Kickoff are not permitted. ROBOT elements, including software, that are designed before Kickoff are not permitted.

    Exceptions include the following:

    1. BUMPERS,
    3. battery assemblies per R5-A, and
    4. software and designs with source files publicly available prior to Kickoff.

    Please note that this means that FABRICATED ITEMS from ROBOTS entered in previous FIRST competitions may not be used on ROBOTS in the 2014 FRC.  Before the formal start of the FRC Build Season, Teams are encouraged to think as much as they please about their ROBOTS.  They may develop prototypes, create proof-of-concept models, and conduct design exercises.  Teams may gather all the raw stock materials and COTS COMPONENTS they want.  

    Example 1: A Team designs and builds a two-speed shifting transmission during the fall as a training exercise.  After Kickoff, they utilize all the design principles they learned in the fall to design their ROBOT.  To optimize the transmission design for their ROBOT, they improve the transmission gear ratios and reduce the size, and build two new transmissions, and place them on the ROBOT.  All parts of this process are permitted activities.

    Example 2: The same Team realizes that the transmission designed and built in the fall perfectly fits their need for a transmission to drive the ROBOT arm.  They build an exact copy of the transmission from the original design plans, and bolt it to the ROBOT.  This would be prohibited, as the transmission – although made during the competition season – was built from detailed designs developed prior to Kickoff.

    Example 3: A Team developed an omni-directional drive system for the 2011 competition.  Over the summer of 2011 they refined and improved the control software (written in C) to add more precision and capabilities.  They decided to use a similar system for the 2014 competition.  They copied large sections of unmodified code over into the control software of the new ROBOT (also written in C).  This would be a violation of the schedule constraint, and would not be allowed.

    Example 4: The same Team decides to use LabVIEW as their software environment for 2014.  Following Kickoff, they use the previously-developed C code as a reference for the algorithms and calculations required to implement their omni-directional control solution.  Because they developed new LabVIEW code as they ported over their algorithms, this would be permitted.

    Example 5: A different Team develops a similar solution during the fall, and plans to use the developed software on their competition ROBOT.  After completing the software, they post it in a generally accessible public forum and make the code available to all Teams.  Because they have made their software publicly available before Kickoff, they can use it on their ROBOT.


  • R14

    All ROBOT elements, with the exception of those withheld per R18 (including items intended for use during the competition in alternative configurations of the ROBOT) must be bagged or crated (as appropriate for your event), and out of Team hands by the end of Stop Build Day, February 18, 2014 (refer to the FRC Administrative Manual, Section 5 for more details).

  • R15

    Teams must stay “hands-off” the bagged ROBOT elements during the following time periods:

    1. from Stop Build Day until their first event,
    2. during the period(s) between their events, and
    3. outside of Pit hours while attending events.


    Modifying parts at night offsite (e.g. pits have closed and you bring a MECHANISM back to the hotel to fix it) is a violation of R15-C.

    Additional time is allowed as follows:

    1. There are no restrictions on when software may be developed.
    2. On days a team is not attending an event, they may continue development of any items permitted per R18, including items listed as exempt from R18, but must do so without interfacing with the bagged ROBOT elements.
    3. Teams attending 2-day events may access their bagged ROBOTS elements per the rules defined in the Administrative Manual, Section 5.6, ROBOT Access Period - for Teams Attending 2-Day Events.
    4. ROBOTS may be exhibited per Administrative Manual Section 5.4.3: Robot Displays.
  • R16

    Items that are no longer commercially available but are functionally equivalent to the original condition as delivered from the VENDOR are considered COTS and may be used.

    Example 1: A part that has non-functional label markings added would be permitted, but a part that has device-specific mounting holes added would be prohibited.

    Example 2: A team has a COTS single-board processor version 1.0, which can no longer be purchased. Only the COTS single-board processor version 2.0 may be purchased. If the COTS single-board processor version 1.0 is functionally equivalent to its original condition, it may be used.

    Example 3: A team has a COTS gearbox which has been discontinued. If the COTS gearbox is functionally equivalent to its original condition, it may be used.


  • R17

    Lubricants may be used only to reduce friction within the ROBOT. Lubricants may not contaminate the ARENA or other ROBOTS.

  • R18

    At an Event, Teams may have access to a static set of FABRICATED ITEMS that shall not exceed 45 lbs. This static set of items may only be brought into the Pits when the Team initially loads in at the Event. Items made at an Event do not count towards this weight limit.

    For Teams attending 2-Day Events, these FABRICATED ITEMS may be used during the Robot Access Period and/or brought to the Event, but the total weight may not exceed 45 lbs. FABRICATED ITEMS constructed during the Robot Access Period and bagged with the ROBOT are exempt from this limit.

    Items exempt from this limit are:

    2. BUMPERS, and
    3. any ROBOT battery assemblies (as described in R5-A).
  • R19

    ROBOTS are required to use BUMPERS to protect all outside corners of the FRAME PERIMETER. For adequate protection, at least 8 in. of BUMPER must be placed on each side of each outside corner (see Figure 4-5). If a side is shorter than 8 in., the entire side must be protected by BUMPER (see Figure 4-6). For the purposes of R19, a round or circular FRAME PERIMETER has an infinite number of corners.

    Figure 4-5: BUMPER Corner Examples

    Figure 4-6: BUMPER Side Less Than 8 in.

  • R2

    The ROBOT must have a FRAME PERIMETER, contained within the BUMPER ZONE, that is comprised of fixed, non-articulated structural elements of the ROBOT. Minor protrusions no greater than ¼ in. such as bolt heads, fastener ends, and rivets are not considered part of the FRAME PERIMETER.

    To determine the FRAME PERIMETER, wrap a piece of string around the ROBOT at the BUMPER ZONE described in R22. The string describes this polygon.

    Note: to permit a simplified definition of the FRAME PERIMETER and encourage a tight, robust connection between the BUMPERS and the FRAME PERIMETER, minor protrusions such as bolt heads, fastener ends, rivets, etc. are excluded from the determination of the FRAME PERIMETER.


  • R20

    Each set of BUMPERS (including any fasteners and/or structures that attach them to the ROBOT) shall not weigh more than 20 lbs.

    If a multi-part attachment system is utilized (e.g. interlocking brackets on the ROBOT and the BUMPER), then the elements permanently attached to the ROBOT will be considered part of the ROBOT, and the elements attached to the BUMPERS will be considered part of the BUMPER.  Each element must satisfy all applicable rules for the relevant system.


  • R21

    BUMPERS must be constructed as follows (see Figure 4-8):

    A. be backed by ¾ in. (nominal) thick by 5 in. (± ½ in) tall plywood or solid, robust wood. Small clearance pockets and/or access holes in the plywood backing are permitted, as long as they do not significantly affect the structural integrity of the BUMPER.

    Particle board or chipboard is not likely to survive the rigors of FRC gameplay and thus not compliant with R21-A

    B. hard BUMPER parts allowed per R21-A, -E, and -F may not extend more than 1 in. beyond the end of the FRAME PERIMETER (see Figure 4-7 and Figure 4-8).

    Figure 4-7: Hard Parts of BUMPER Corners

    C. use a stacked pair of approximately 2 ½ in. round, petal, or hex “pool noodles” (solid or hollow) as the BUMPER cushion material (see Figure 4-8). Cushion material may extend up to 2 ½ in. beyond the end of the plywood (see Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-9). To assist in applying the fabric covering, fasteners may be used to attach the pool noodles to the wood backing, so long as the cross section of Figure 4-8 is not significantly altered (e.g. tape compressing the pool noodles).

    D. be covered with a rugged, smooth cloth (multiple layers of cloth and seams are permitted if needed to accomodate R27, provided the cross section of Figure 4-8 is not significantly altered).

    Silk or bedding are not considered rugged materials. 1000D Cordura is recommended. Tape (e.g. gaffer's tape) matching the BUMPER color is allowed to patch small holes on a temporary basis.

    E. Optionally, use aluminum angle, as shown in Figure 4-8, or other fasteners (e.g. staples, screws, etc.) to clamp cloth.

    F. must attach to the FRAME PERIMETER of the ROBOT with a rigid fastening system to form a tight, robust connection to the main structure/frame (e.g. not attached with hook-and-loop or tie-wraps).  The attachment system must be designed to withstand vigorous game play. All removable fasteners (e.g. bolts, locking pins, pip-pins, etc.) will be considered part of the BUMPERS.

    Figure 4-8: BUMPER Vertical Cross Section

  • R22

    BUMPERS must be located entirely within the BUMPER ZONE, which is between two (2) and ten (10) in. from the floor, in reference to the ROBOT standing normally on a flat floor.

    There is no explicit requirement that BUMPERS be perfectly parallel to the floor, however the requirement that BUMPERS be constructed per Figure 4-8, the vertical cross-section, does implicitly mean that a BUMPER should not overtly deviate from this orientation.


  • R23

    BUMPERS may not be articulated (specifically, R23 is assessed relative to the FRAME PERIMETER).

  • R24

    Corner joints between BUMPERS must be filled with pool noodle material. Examples of implementation are shown in Figure 4-9.

    Figure 4-9: Soft Parts of BUMPER Corners

  • R25

    BUMPERS (the entire BUMPER, not just the cover) must be designed for quick and easy installation and removal.

    As a guideline, BUMPERS should be removable by two (2) people in fewer than five (5) minutes. 


  • R26

    BUMPERS must be supported by the structure/frame of the ROBOT (see Figure 4-10). To be considered supported, a minimum of ½ in. at each end of the BUMPER must be backed by the FRAME PERIMETER. Additionally, any gap between the backing material and the frame

    1. must not be greater than ¼ in. deep, or
    2. not more than 8 in. wide.

    Figure 4-10: BUMPER Support Examples

  • R27

    Each ROBOT must be able to display red or blue BUMPERS to match their ALLIANCE color, as assigned in the MATCH schedule distributed at the event (reference Section 5.1.1: MATCH Schedules). Markings visible when installed on the ROBOT, other than those explicitly required per R28, are prohibited.

  • R28

    Team numbers must be displayed on the BUMPERS and meet the following criteria:

    1. consist of numerals at least 4 in. high, at least ½ in. in stroke width, and be either white in color or outlined in white,
    2. may not wrap around a corner of the FRAME PERIMETER (for the purposes of R28 a round or circular FRAME PERIMETER has no corners), and
    3. be positioned around the ROBOT such that an observer walking around the perimeter of the ROBOT can unambiguously tell the Team’s number from any point of view.

    There is no prohibition against splitting Team numbers onto different sections of BUMPER. The intent is that the Team’s number is clearly visible and unambiguous so that Judges, Referees, Announcers, and other Teams can easily identify competing ROBOTS.


  • R29

    The only motors and actuators permitted on 2014 FRC ROBOTS include the following:

    Table 4-1: Legal Motors

    Motor Name

    Part Numbers Available

    Max Qty Allowed












    BaneBots Motors


    M7-RS775-18 / RS775PH-6221

    M7-RS775-12 / RS775WC-8514

    M5-RS555-12 / RS555PH-4136F

    M5-RS550-12 / RS550VC-7527

    M5-RS550-12-B / RS550VC-7527L

    M5-RS545-12 / RS545PH-5125F

    M5-RS540-12 / RS540BA-5040

    M3-RS395-12 / RS395PH-3328



    AndyMark 9015



    Denso Throttle Control



    VEX BAG and/or mini-CIM




    AndyMark PG




    Window Motors

    Door Motors

    Windshield Wiper Motors

    Seat Motors

    Various from FIRST® Choice

    Various from Automotive Recyclers Association PDV


    VEX 2-wire Motor 393



    Snow Blower Motor



    Electrical solenoid actuators, no greater than 1 in. stroke and rated electrical input power no greater than 10 watts (W) continuous duty at 12 volts (VDC)


    Drive motors or fans that are part of a motor controller or COTS computing device


    Fans included in the 2014 Kickoff Kit, FIRST® Choice, or as a Talon motor controller accessory


    COTS servos with a maximum power rating of 4W each at 6VDC

    Per the Servo Industry,

    Servo Max Power Rating = (Stall Torque) X (No Load Speed)



    This is the total number of each motor a Team may use on their ROBOT, not the quantity per part number. For example, each team may use up to six (6) CIM motors on their ROBOT, regardless of the quantity or combination of each individual part number used.

    Given the extensive amount of motors allowed on the ROBOT, Teams are encouraged to consider the total power available from the ROBOT battery during the design and build of the ROBOT. Stalling many motors at the same time could lead to drops in ROBOT battery voltage  that will result in loss of power to core Control System pieces or may trip the main breaker.


  • R3

    The ROBOT must satisfy the following size constraints:

    1. the total length of the FRAME PERIMETER sides may not exceed 112 in. (see Figure 4-1 for examples),
    2. a ROBOT may not extend more than 20 in. beyond the FRAME PERIMETER (see Figure 4-2 for examples) (see G24), and
    3. the ROBOT height may not exceed 60 in., except as allowed by G23.
    4. Any extension above 60 in. may not exceed a 6 in. diameter vertical cylinder (see Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4 for examples), per G23.

    Size constraints may be met with either hardware or software.


    Figure 4-1: FRAME PERIMETER Length Calculation

    Figure 4-2: FRAME PERIMETER Extension

    Figure 4-3: Single Vertical Extension Examples

    Figure 4-4: Multiple Vertical Extension Examples

  • R30

    The integral mechanical and electrical system of any motor may not be modified. Motors, servos, and electric solenoids used on the ROBOT shall not be modified in any way, except as follows:

    1. The mounting brackets and/or output shaft/interface may be modified to facilitate the physical connection of the motor to the ROBOT and actuated part.
    2. The electrical input leads may be trimmed to length as necessary.
    3. The locking pins on the window motors (P/N: 262100-3030 and 262100-3040) may be removed.
    4. The connector housings on the window motors (P/N: 262100-3030 and 262100-3040) may be modified to facilitate lead connections.
    5. The Integrated Encoder Module (P/N: 276-1321) may be installed on the VEX 2-wire Motor 393 (P/N 276-2177).
    6. The VEX 2-wire Motor 393 (P/N: 276-2177) gears may be changed or replaced per the Supplier instructions.


    The intent of this rule is to allow Teams to modify mounting tabs and the like, not to gain a weight reduction by potentially compromising the structural integrity of any motor.  The integral mechanical and electrical system of the motor is not to be modified. 

    Note that for the Window motors, the gearbox is considered integral to the motor, thus the motor may not be used without the gearbox.


  • R31

    The only legal source of electrical energy for the ROBOT during the competition, the ROBOT battery, is one of the following approved 12VDC non-spillable lead acid batteries:

    1. Enersys (P/N: NP18-12)
    2. MK Battery (P/N: ES17-12)
    3. Battery Mart (P/N: SLA-12V18)
    4. Sigma (P/N: SP12-18)
    5. Universal Battery (P/N: UB12180)
    6. Power Patrol (P/N: SLA1116)
    7. Werker Battery (P/N: WKA12-18NB)
    8. Power Sonic (P/N: PS-12180 NB)
    9. Yuasa (P/N: NP18-12B)
    10. Panasonic (P/N: LC-RD-1217)
    11. Interstate Batteries (P/N: BSL1116)
    12. Enersys (P/N: NP18-12BFR)
    13. Enersys (P/N: NP18-12B)

    Exception: Batteries integral to and part of a COTS computing device or self-contained camera are also permitted (e.g. laptop batteries), provided they’re only used to power the COTS computing device and any peripheral COTS USB input devices connected to the COTS computing device and they must be securely fastened to the ROBOT.

  • R32

    The ROBOT battery must be secured such that it will not dislodge should the ROBOT be turned over or placed in any arbitrary orientation.

  • R33

    Each electrical terminal on the ROBOT battery and its connection (lugs, stripped wire ends, etc.) to the 6AWG wire must be fully insulated.

  • R34

    Non-electrical sources of energy used by the ROBOT, (i.e., stored at the start of a MATCH), shall come only from the following sources:

    1. compressed air stored in the pneumatic system that is legal per R79 and R80,
    2. a change in the altitude of the ROBOT center of gravity, and
    3. storage achieved by deformation of ROBOT parts.


  • R35

    The one ROBOT battery, Anderson Power Products (or APP) Connectors (p/n SB50), the one main 120-amp (120A) circuit breaker (Cooper Bussman P/N: CB185-120), and the one Power Distribution (PD) Board shall be connected as shown in Figure 4-11.

    Figure 4-11: Main Power Distribution

  • R36

    All circuits, with the exceptions of those listed in R42 and R45, must connect to, and have power sourced solely by, a single protected 12VDC WAGO connector pair (i.e. the Load Terminals, as shown in Figure 4-11) or the 5VDC supply on the PD Board (as shown in Figure 4-12), not the M6 shanks.

  • R37

    All wiring and electrical devices, including all Control System COMPONENTS, shall be electrically isolated from the ROBOT frame. The ROBOT frame must not be used to carry electrical current.

    R37 is checked by observing a >10kOhm resistance between either the (+) or (-) post within the APP connector that is attached to the PD Board and any point on the ROBOT.

    The chassis for the cRIO and the Axis 206 camera have grounded enclosures. Under R37 (and for their protection), it is required that they be electrically isolated from the ROBOT frame when installed on the ROBOT.


  • R38

    The 120A circuit breaker must be quickly accessible from the exterior of the ROBOT.

    It is recommended that the 120A circuit breaker location be clearly and obviously labeled so it can be easily found by ARENA staff during a MATCH.


  • R39

    The PD Board and all circuit breakers must be easily visible for Inspection.

  • R4

    In the STARTING CONFIGURATION, the ROBOT must constrain itself such that no part of the ROBOT extends outside the vertical projection of the FRAME PERIMETER, with the exception of minor protrusions such as bolt heads, fastener ends, rivets, etc.

    If a ROBOT is designed as intended and pushed up against a vertical wall (in STARTING CONFIGURATION and with BUMPERS removed), only the FRAME PERIMETER (or minor protrusions) will be in contact with the wall.


  • R40

    Any active electrical item not explicitly listed in R29 or R67 is considered a CUSTOM CIRCUIT. CUSTOM CIRCUITS may not produce voltages exceeding 24V when referenced to the negative terminal of the battery.

  • R41

    The cRIO power input must be connected to the 24VDC supply terminals on the PD Board shown in Figure 4-12

  • R42

    With the exception of one (1) cRIO and one (1) Solenoid Breakout Board, no other electrical load may be connected to the 24 VDC supply terminals on the PD Board.

    Please note per R69 that, for an 8-slot cRIO, the power drawn by the Solenoid Breakout Board may not exceed 16W. For a 4-slot cRIO, it may not exceed 21W. 


  • R43

    The Wireless Bridge power must be supplied by the 12VDC-to-5VDC converter (P/N: CLL25-24S05) connected to the marked 12VDC supply terminals at the end of the PD Board, and not the main WAGO connectors along the sides of the PD Board shown in Figure 4-12. No other electrical load may be connected to these terminals.

    Please reference any 2014 ROBOT Power Distribution Diagram posted on the Kit of Parts site for Wireless Bridge wiring information.

    Figure 4-12: Wireless Bridge, cRIO, and 5VDC Power Connections

  • R44

    Only one wire may be connected to each WAGO connector on the PD Board.

    If multi-point distribution of circuit power is needed (e.g. to provide power to three (3) KOP breakout boards via one 20A circuit), then all incoming wires may be appropriately spliced into the main lead, and only one lead inserted into the WAGO connector to connect the circuit.


  • R45

    The only circuit breakers permitted for use in the PD Board are:

    1. Snap Action VB3-A Series, terminal style F57
    2. Snap Action MX5-A40
  • R46

    Each branch circuit must be protected by one and only one circuit breaker on the PD Board per Table 4-2. No other electrical load can be connected to the breaker supplying this circuit.

    Table 4-2: Branch Circuit Protection

    Branch Circuit Circuit Breaker Value Qty Allowed Per Breaker
    Motor Controller Up to 40A 1
    CUSTOM CIRCUIT Up to 40A 1
    Relay Module Up to 20A 1
    Digital Sidecar 20A 1
    Analog/Solenoid Breakout Board 20A 1


    R46 does not prohibit the use of smaller value fuses within CUSTOM CIRCUITS for additional protection.


  • R47

    All circuits shall be wired with appropriately sized insulated wire:

    Table 4-3: Legal Wire Size

    Application Minimum Wire Size
    30 – 40A protected circuit 12 AWG (2.052mm)
    20 – 30A protected circuit 14 AWG (1.628mm)
    5 – 20A protected circuit 18 AWG (1.024mm)
    Between the PD Board and the Analog and/or Solenoid Breakout Boards (even though they are protected by a 20A circuit breaker per R46)
    Between the PD Board and the cRIO 20 AWG (0.8128mm)
    Between the PD Board and the wireless bridge
    ≤5A protected circuit
    SIGNAL LEVEL circuits (i.e. circuits which draw ≤1A continuous and have a source incapable of delivering >5A, including but not limited to DSC outputs, Solenoid Breakout outputs, and Arduino outputs) 28 AWG (0.321mm)


    Wires that are recommended by the device manufacturer or originally attached to legal devices are considered part of the device and by default legal. Such wires are exempt from R47

  • R48

    Branch circuits may include intermediate elements such as COTS connectors, splices, COTS flexible/rolling/sliding contacts, and COTS slip rings, as long as the entire electrical pathway is via appropriately gauged/rated elements.

  • R49

    All non-SIGNAL LEVEL wiring with a constant polarity (i.e., except for outputs of relay modules, motor controllers, or sensor outputs) shall be color-coded as follows:

    1. Red, white, brown, or black-with-stripe on the +24VDC, +12VDC, and +5VDC connections
    2. Black or blue for the common or negative side (-) of the connections.

    Wires that are originally attached to legal devices are considered part of the device and by default legal. Such wires are exempt from R49

  • R5

    The ROBOT weight may not exceed 120 lbs. When determining weight, the basic ROBOT structure and all elements of all additional MECHANISMS that might be used in different configurations of the ROBOT shall be weighed together.

    For the purposes of determining compliance with the weight limitations, the items listed below are not included in the weight assessment:

    1. the ROBOT battery and its associated half of the Anderson cable quick connect/disconnect pair (including no more than 12 in. of cable per leg, the associated cable lugs, connecting bolts, and insulation) and
    2. BUMPERS (including BUMPER covers, if appropriate).


  • R50

    The only power regulating devices for actuators permitted on the ROBOT include:

    1. Jaguar Motor Controller (P/N: MDL-BDC, MDL-BDC24, and 217-3367),
    2. Victor 884 Motor Controller (P/N: VICTOR-884-12/12),
    3. Victor 888 Motor Controller (P/N: 217-2769),
    4. Talon Motor Controller (P/N: CTRE_Talon, CTRE_Talon_SR, and am-2195),
    5. VEX Motor Controller 29 (P/N: 276-2193) for controlling VEX 2-wire Motor 393 (P/N: 276-2177) only,
    6. Spike H-Bridge Relay (P/N: 217-0220 and SPIKE-RELAY-H), and
    7. NI 9472 module connected to a Solenoid Breakout (P/N: FC14-097 or similar).
  • R51

    Each power regulating device may control electrical loads per Table 4-4. Unless otherwise noted, each power regulating device may control one and only one electrical load.

    Table 4-4: Legal Power Regulating Device Use

    Electrical Load

    Jaguar, Victor, or Talon motor controller

    Spike H-Bridge Relay

    VEX Motor Controller 29

    NI 9472 module w/Solenoid Breakout

    ARA motors


    Up to 2 per controller











    Up to 2 per controller









    Pneumatic Solenoid Valves





    Electric Solenoids




    Yes (via 12VDC only)






    *Multiple low-load, pneumatic solenoid valves, electric solenoids or CUSTOM CIRCUITS may be connected to a single relay module. This would allow one (1) relay module to drive multiple pneumatic actions or multiple CUSTOM CIRCUITS. No other electrical load can be connected to a relay module used in this manner.
  • R52

    Servos must be directly connected to the PWM ports on the Digital Sidecar. They must not be connected to motor controllers or relay modules.

  • R53

    CUSTOM CIRCUITS shall not directly alter the power pathways between the ROBOT battery, PD Board, motor controllers, relays, motors, or other elements of the ROBOT control system (items explicitly mentioned in R64). Custom high impedance voltage monitoring or low impedance current monitoring circuitry connected to the ROBOT’S electrical system is acceptable, if the effect on the ROBOT outputs is inconsequential.

  • R54

    ROBOTS must be controlled via one (1) programmable National Instruments cRIO (P/N: cRIO-FRC or cRIO-FRCII), with image version FRC_2014_v52.

    There are no rules that prohibit co-processors, provided commands originate from the cRIO to configure, enable, and specify all operating points for all power regulating devices. This includes Jaguar motor controllers legally wired to the CAN-bus.


  • R55

    One (1) D-Link Wireless Bridge (P/N: DAP-1522), hardware revision B, is the only permitted device for communicating to and from the ROBOT during the MATCH.

    Hardware revision A, distributed in 2011 and 2012, is not legal for 2014. Teams participating in the Israel Regional may use hardware version Rev A or Rev B.


  • R56

    The DAP-1522 Wireless Bridge must be connected to the cRIO Ethernet port 1 (either directly or via a CAT5 Ethernet pigtail).

  • R57

    Ethernet-connected COTS devices or CUSTOM CIRCUITS may connect to any remaining Ethernet port but must not transmit or receive UDP packets using ports 1100-1200 with the exception of ports 1130 and 1140.

  • R58

    Communication between the ROBOT and the OPERATOR CONSOLE is restricted as follows:

    1. Network Ports:
      1. TCP 1180: This port is typically used for camera data from the cRIO to the Driver Station (DS) when the camera is connected to port 2 on the 8-slot cRIO (P/N: cRIO-FRC). This port is bidirectional.
      2. TCP 1735: SmartDashboard, bidirectional
      3. UDP 1130: Dashboard-to-ROBOT control data, directional
      4. UDP 1140: ROBOT-to-Dashboard status data, directional
      5. HTTP 80: Camera connected via switch on the ROBOT, bidirectional
      6. HTTP 443: Camera connected via switch on the ROBOT, bidirectional


    Teams may use these ports as they wish if they do not employ them as outlined above (i.e. TCP 1180 can be used to pass data back and forth between the ROBOT and the DS if the Team chooses not to use the camera on port 2).

    1. Bandwidth: no more than 7 Mbits/second.

    The FMS Whitepaper has more details on how to check and optimize bandwidth usage.


  • R59

    The cRIO, Driver Station software, and Wireless Bridge must be configured to correspond to the correct Team number, per the procedures defined in Getting Started with the FRC Control System.

  • R6

    Traction devices may not have surface features such as metal, sandpaper, hard plastic studs, cleats, or similar attachments. Traction devices include all parts of the ROBOT that are designed to transmit any propulsive and/or braking forces between the ROBOT and FIELD carpet.

  • R60

    All signals must originate from the OPERATOR CONSOLE and be transmitted to the ROBOT via the ARENA Ethernet network.

  • R61

    No form of wireless communication shall be used to communicate to, from, or within the ROBOT, except those required per R55 and R60 (e.g. radio modems from previous FIRST competitions and Bluetooth devices are not permitted on the ROBOT during competition).

  • R62

    The Wireless Bridge must be mounted on the ROBOT such that the diagnostic lights are visible to ARENA personnel.

    Teams are encouraged to mount the wireless bridge away from noise generating devices such as motors and the 12VDC-to-5VDC converter.


  • R63

    ROBOTS must use at least one (1) diagnostic ROBOT Signal Light (RSL) (P/N: 855PB-B12ME522).

    Any RSL must be:

    1. mounted on the ROBOT such that it is easily visible while standing three (3) ft in front of the ROBOT,
    2. connected to the “RSL” supply terminals on a Digital Sidecar that is connected to an NI 9403 module in Slot 2 of the cRIO, and
    3. wired for solid light operation, by placing a jumper between the “La” and “Lb” terminals on the light per Figure 4-13

    See the 2014 ROBOT Data Diagram on the KOP website and the item bulletin for connection details.

    Figure 4-13: Jumper on RSL

  • R64

    The Driver Station software, cRIO, Power Distribution Board, Digital Sidecars, Analog Breakouts, Solenoid Breakouts, RSL, 120A breaker, motor controllers, relay modules, Wireless Bridge, 12VDC-5VDC converter, and batteries shall not be tampered with, modified, or adjusted in any way (tampering includes drilling, cutting, machining, gluing, rewiring, disassembling, etc.), with the following exceptions:

    Please note that the Driver Station application is a separate application from the Dashboard. The Driver Station software may not be modified, while teams are expected to customize their Dashboard code.

    1. User programmable code in the cRIO may be customized.
    2. DIP switches on the cRIO may be set (applies to cRIO-FRC only).
    3. Motor controllers may be calibrated as described in owner's manuals.
    4. Fans may be attached to motor controllers and may be powered from the power input terminals.
    5. If powering the compressor, the fuse on a Spike H-Bridge Relay may be replaced with a 20A Snap-Action circuit breaker.
    6. Wires, cables, and signal lines may be connected via the standard connection points provided on the devices.
    7. Fasteners may be used to attach the device to the OPERATOR CONSOLE or ROBOT.
    8. Labeling may be applied to indicate device purpose, connectivity, functional performance, etc.
    9. Brake/Coast jumpers on motor controllers may be changed from their default location.
    10. Limit switch jumpers may be removed from a Jaguar motor controller and a custom limit switch circuit may be substituted.
    11. If CAN-bus functionality is used, the Jaguar firmware must be updated as required by FIRST (see Rule R67-D).
    12. Devices may be repaired, provided the performance and specifications of the device after the repair are identical  to those before the repair. 

    Please note that while repairs are permitted per the FRC Game Manual, the allowance is independent of any manufacturer’s warranty. Teams make repairs at their own risk and should assume that any warranty or RMA options are forfeited. Be aware that diagnosing and repairing COMPONENTS such as these can be difficult.


  • R65

    Neither 12VDC power nor relay module or motor controller outputs may be connected to the Analog/Solenoid Breakout Boards or the Digital Sidecar (with the exception of the designated 12VDC input). 

  • R66

    Every relay module, servo, and PWM motor controller shall be connected to a corresponding port on a Digital Sidecar and be controlled by signals provided from the cRIO.  They shall not be controlled by signals from any other source.

  • R67

    Each Jaguar must be controlled with signal inputs sourced from the cRIO and passed via either a connected PWM cable or a CAN-bus connection. 

    1. The Jaguar must receive signals via either a PWM cable or a CAN-bus connection.  Both may not be used simultaneously.
    2. PWM configuration: If the Jaguar motor controller is controlled via PWM communications, the PWM port on the Jaguar motor controller must be connected directly to a PWM port on the Digital Sidecar with a PWM cable.  No other device may be connected to these PWM ports.  No other device may be connected to any other port on the Jaguar motor controller with the exception of connection to the coast/brake port or the limit switch ports.
    3. CAN-bus configuration: If the Jaguar motor controller is controlled via CAN-bus communications, each Jaguar motor controller must be connected to either the cRIO or another CAN-bus device with a CAN-bus cable.
    4. If the CAN-bus configuration is used, the firmware on gray Jaguar motor controllers must be updated to at least Version 101 of the official FIRST firmware and Version 107 for black Jaguars.

    As long as the CAN bus is wired legally so that the heartbeat from the cRIO is maintained, all closed loop control features of the Jaguar motor controller may be used. (That is, commands originating from the cRIO to configure, enable, and specify an operating point for all Jaguar closed loop modes fit the intent of R54.)


  • R68

    If CAN-bus communication is used, the CAN-bus must be connected to the cRIO through either the Ethernet network connected to Port 1, Port 2, or the DB-9 RS-232 port connection. 

    1. Ethernet-to-CAN bridges or RS-232-to-CAN bridges (including the “black” Jaguars) may be used to connect the CAN-bus to the cRIO.
    2. Additional switches, sensor modules, CUSTOM CIRCUITS, third-party modules, etc. may also be placed on the CAN-bus. 
    3. No device that interferes with, alters, or blocks communications between the cRIO and the Jaguars will be permitted (tunneling packets for the purposes of passing them through an Ethernet-to-CAN bridge is acceptable as the commands are not altered).
  • R69

    If powered from the PD Board 24V supply per R41, loads on each Solenoid Breakout shall not cumulatively exceed 16W if using the cRIO-FRC (8-slot) and 21W if using the cRIO-FRC II (4-slot). 

  • R7

    ROBOTS must allow removal of BALLS from the ROBOT and the ROBOT from FIELD elements while DISABLED and powered off.

    ROBOTS will not be re-enabled after the MATCH, so Teams must be sure that BALLS and ROBOTS can be quickly, simply, and safely removed. 


  • R70

    Control System pieces must be configured to report the ROBOT’S battery voltage. Specifically:

    1. A National Instruments 9201 analog module must be installed in slot 1 of the cRIO. 
    2. An Analog Breakout Board must be connected to this module.
    3. If using Analog Breakout Boards revision 6 and older, a jumper must be installed in the “Power” position (two outer pins) (see Figure 4-14). 
    4. The Analog Breakout Board must be powered from the PD Board.

    Figure 4-14: Former (left) and Current (right) KOP Analog Breakout Boards

  • R71

    All outputs from CUSTOM CIRCUITS shall connect to only the following:

    1. other CUSTOM CIRCUITS,
    2. input ports on the Digital Sidecar,
    3. input ports on the Analog Breakout Board,
    4. the RS-232 port on the cRIO,
    5. the Ethernet network connected to either Port 1 or Port 2 of the cRIO,
    6. the CAN-bus if and only if all Jaguar motor controllers on the CAN-bus are wired in full compliance with R67and R68, or
    7. the sensor inputs on the Jaguar motor controller.

    CUSTOM CIRCUITS and additional electronics are allowed to utilize the Port 2 Ethernet bus on the cRIO-FRC and/or the CAN-bus to communicate between devices.  Note however, that the ROBOT must be controlled by the cRIO (see R54).  Thus, any additional devices on the Ethernet or CAN-bus must not provide command signals that do not originate from the cRIO. 


  • R72

    A noise filter may be wired across motor leads or PWM leads.  Such filters will not be considered CUSTOM CIRCUITS and will not be considered a violation of R53 or R71

    Acceptable signal filters must be fully insulated and must be one of the following:

    1. A one microfarad (1 µF) or less, non-polarized, capacitor may be applied across the power leads of any motor on your ROBOT (as close to the actual motor leads as reasonably possible).
    2. A resistor may be used as a shunt load for the PWM control signal feeding a servo.
  • R73

    Any decorations that involve broadcasting a signal to/from the ROBOT, such as remote cameras, must be approved by FIRST (via e-mail to frcparts@usfirst.org) prior to the event and tested for communications interference at the venue.  Such devices, if reviewed and approved, are excluded from R61.

  • R74

    To satisfy multiple constraints associated with safety, consistency, Inspection, and constructive innovation, no pneumatic parts other than those explicitly permitted in Section 4.10: Pneumatic System may be used on the ROBOT.

  • R75

    All pneumatic items must be COTS pneumatic devices rated by their manufacturers for working pressure of at least 125psi (with the exception of R77-D). 

  • R76

    All pneumatic COMPONENTS must be used in their original, unaltered condition. Exceptions are as follows:

    1. tubing may be cut,
    2. wiring for pneumatic devices may be modified to interface with the control system,
    3. assembling and connecting pneumatic COMPONENTS using the pre-existing threads, mounting brackets, quick-connect fittings, etc.,
    4. removing the mounting pin from a pneumatic cylinder, provided the cylinder itself is not modified,
    5. labeling applied to indicate device purpose, connectivity, functional performance, etc.

    Do not, for example, paint, file, machine, or abrasively remove any part of a pneumatic COMPONENT – this would cause the part to become a prohibited item.  Consider pneumatic COMPONENTS sacred.


  • R77

    The only pneumatic system items permitted on 2014 FRC ROBOTS include the items listed below.

    1. Items available in the 2014 KOP,
    2. Pneumatic pressure vent plug valves functionally equivalent to those provided in the KOP,


    Parker valves PV609-2 or MV709-2 are recommended.

    1. Solenoid valves with a maximum 1/8 in. NPT port diameter,
    2. Solenoid valves that are rated for a maximum working pressure that is less than 125 psi rating mandated above are permitted, however if employed,  an additional pressure relief valve must be added to the low pressure side of the main regulator. The additional relief valve must be set to a lower pressure than the maximum pressure rating for the solenoid valve,
    3. Additional pneumatic tubing, with a maximum 0.160 in. inside diameter, functionally equivalent to that provided in the KOP,
    4. Pressure transducers, pressure gauges, flow control valves, and connecting fittings,
    5. Pressure regulators with a maximum outlet pressure of no more than 60 psi,
    6. Pneumatic cylinders,
    7. Pneumatic storage tanks, and
    8. Compressors compliant with R79.

    The following devices are not considered pneumatic devices and are not subject to pneumatic rules (though they must satisfy all other rules):

    A. a device that creates a vacuum

    B. closed-loop COTS pneumatic (gas) shocks

    C. air-filled (pneumatic) wheels 


  • R78

    If pneumatic COMPONENTS are used, the following items are required as part of the pneumatic circuit and must be used in accordance with this section, as illustrated in Figure 4-15.

    1. Compressor
    2. Pressure Relief Valve
    3. Pressure Switch
    4. Pressure Vent Plug
    5. “Stored” Pressure Gauge (upstream from Primary Regulator)
    6. “Working” Pressure Gauge (downstream from Primary Regulator)
    7. “Working” Pressure Regulator

    Figure 4-15: Pneumatic System Setup

  • R79

    Compressed air on the ROBOT must be provided by one and only one compressor.  Compressor specifications may not exceed nominal 12VDC, 1.05 cfm flow rate.

  • R8

    ROBOT parts shall not be made from hazardous materials, be unsafe, cause an unsafe condition, or interfere with the operation of other ROBOTS.

    Examples of items that will violate R8include (but are not limited to):

    A. Shields, curtains, or any other devices or materials designed or used to obstruct or limit the vision of any DRIVERS and/or COACHES and/or interfere with their ability to safely control their ROBOT

    B. Speakers, sirens, air horns, or other audio devices that generate sound at a level sufficient to be a distraction

    C. Any devices or decorations specifically intended to jam or interfere with the remote sensing capabilities of another ROBOT, including vision systems, acoustic range finders, sonars, infrared proximity detectors, etc. (e.g. including imagery on your ROBOT that, to a reasonably astute observer, mimics the VISION TARGET)

    D. Exposed lasers other than Class I. 

    E. Flammable gasses

    F. Any device intended to produce flames or pyrotechnics

    G. Hydraulic fluids or hydraulic items

    Teams should provide MSD Sheets for any materials they use that might be considered questionable during ROBOT Inspection.


  • R80

    Off-board compressors are permitted, however the compressor must be controlled and powered by the ROBOT.

    The compressor may be mounted on the ROBOT, or it may be left off the ROBOT and used to pre-charge compressed air in storage tanks on the ROBOT

    The intent of this rule is to permit teams to take advantage of the weight savings associated with keeping the compressor off-board.  However, using the compressor off-board of the ROBOT does NOT permit non-compliance with any other applicable rules.


  • R81

    “Stored” air pressure on the ROBOT must be no greater than 120 psi.

  • R82

    “Working” air pressure on the ROBOT must be no greater than 60 psi and must be provided through one primary adjustable, relieving, pressure regulator.

    Norgren regulator P/N: R07-100-RNEA recommended.


  • R83

    Only the compressor, relief valve (P/N: 16-004-011), pressure switch, pressure vent plug, pressure gauge, storage tanks, tubing, pressure transducers, and connecting fittings may be in the high-pressure pneumatic circuit upstream from the regulator.

  • R84

    Pressure gauges must be placed in easily visible locations upstream and downstream of the regulator to display the “stored” and “working” pressures.

  • R85

    If the compressor is not included on the ROBOT (under the provisions of Rule R79), the “Working” Pressure Regulator, ”Stored” Pressure Gauge, and pressure switch may be located on-board (Figure 4- 16) or off-board (Figure 4-17) (but must be together), provided all other pneumatic rules are satisfied.

    Figure 4-16: Off-Board Compressor with On-Board Regulator and Gauge

  • R86

    If the regulator is kept off-board the ROBOT with the compressor, then only low-pressure (60 psi or less) “working” air can be stored on the ROBOT. The “working” pressure gauge must be installed on-board the ROBOT at all times (Figure 4-17).

    Figure 4-17: Off-Board Compressor, Regulator, and Gauge with Additional On-Board Gauge

  • R87

    The relief valve must be attached directly to the compressor or attached by legal fittings connected to the compressor output port. If using an off-board compressor, an additional relief valve must be included on the ROBOT.

    If necessary, Teams are required to adjust the relief valve to release air at 125 psi. The valve may or may not have been calibrated prior to being supplied to Teams.


  • R88

    The pressure switch requirements are:

    1. It must be connected to the high-pressure side of the pneumatic circuit (i.e. prior to the pressure regulator) to sense the “stored” pressure of the circuit.
    2. The two wires from the pressure switch must be connected directly to a digital input and ground pin on the Digital Sidecar.
    3. The cRIO  must be programmed to sense the state of the switch and operate the relay module that powers the compressor to prevent over-pressuring the system.


  • R89

    The pressure vent plug must be:

    1. connected to the pneumatic circuit such that, when manually operated, it will vent to the atmosphere to relieve all stored pressure, and
    2. placed on the ROBOT so that it is visible and easily accessible.

    If the compressor is not used on the ROBOT, then an additional pressure vent plug must be connected to the high-pressure portion of the pneumatic circuit off-board the ROBOT with the compressor (see R79).

  • R9

    Protrusions from the ROBOT and exposed surfaces on the ROBOT shall not pose hazards to the ARENA elements (including the BALLS) or people.

    If the ROBOT includes protrusions that form the “leading edge” of the ROBOT as it drives and have a surface area of less than 1 in.2, it will invite detailed Inspection.  For example, forklifts, lifting arms, or grapplers may be carefully Inspected for these hazards.


  • R90

    The outputs from multiple valves may not be plumbed together.

  • R91

    The Driver Station software provided on the Kit of Parts website is the only application permitted to specify and communicate the operating mode (i.e. Autonomous/Teleop) and operating state (Enable/Disable) to the ROBOT. The Driver Station software must be revision or newer. 

    Teams are permitted to use a portable computing device of their choice (laptop computer, PDAs, etc.) to host the Driver Station software while participating in competition MATCHES. 


  • R92

    The OPERATOR CONSOLE must include a graphic display to present the Driver Station disgnostic information. It must be positioned within the OPERATOR CONSOLE so that the screen display can be clearly seen during Inspection and in a MATCH.

  • R93

    Devices hosting the Driver Station software may only interface with the Field Management System (FMS) via the Ethernet cable provided at the PLAYER STATION (e.g. not through a switch). The Ethernet port on the OPERATOR CONSOLE must be easily and quickly accessible.

    Teams are strongly encouraged to use pigtails on the Ethernet port used to connect to the FMS. Such pigtails will reduce wear and tear on the device’s port and, with proper strain relief employed, will protect the port from accidental jerks.  


  • R94

    The OPERATOR CONSOLE must not exceed 60 in. long by 14 in. deep (excluding any items that are held or worn by the DRIVERS during the MATCH).

    There is a 54 in. long by 2 in. wide strip of hook-and-loop tape (“loop” side) along the center of the PLAYER STATION support shelf that may be used to secure the OPERATOR CONSOLE to the shelf. See Section 2.2.9 for details.


  • R95

    Other than the system provided by the ARENA, no other form of wireless communications shall be used to communicate to, from, or within the OPERATOR CONSOLE. 

    Examples of prohibited wireless systems include, but are not limited to, active wireless network cards and Bluetooth devices. For the case of FRC, a motion sensing input device (e.g. Microsoft Kinect) is not considered wireless communication and is allowed.


  • T1

    All event attendees must wear safety glasses and closed-toed shoes while in the ARENA.

  • T10

    If a ROBOT is modified after it has passed Inspection, other than modifications described in T8, that ROBOT must be re-Inspected. 

    If an observation is made that another Team’s ROBOT may be in violation of the ROBOT rules, please approach FIRST officials to review the matter in question.  This is an area where Gracious ProfessionalismTM is very important.


  • T11

    At events, Teams may only produce FABRICATED ITEMS in the pit areas or provided machine shops, as defined in the Administrative Manual, Section 4.8: The Pit.

  • T12

    For the safety of all those involved, Inspections must take place with the ROBOT powered off, pneumatics unpressurized, and springs or other stored energy devices in their lowest potential energy states (i.e. battery removed).

    Power and air pressure should only be enabled on the ROBOT during those portions of the Inspection process where it is absolutely required to validate certain system functionality and compliance with specific rules (firmware check, confirmation of safe release of stored energy up to and including actuation of the mechanism, etc.). Inspectors may allow the ROBOT to be powered up beyond the parameters above if both criteria below are met.

    1. The ROBOT design requires power or a charged stored energy device in order to confirm that the ROBOT meets volume requirements, and
    2. The Team has included safety interlocks that mitigate unexpected release of such stored energy.
  • T13

    If a TEAM needs clarification on a ruling or score, one (1) pre-college student from that TEAM should address the Head Referee after the ARENA reset signal (i.e. PLAYER STATION LED strings turn green). A TEAM member signals their desire to speak with the Head Referee by standing in a Red or Blue Question Box, which are located on the floor near each end of the scoring table. Depending on timing, the Head Referee may postpone any requested discussion until the end of the subsequent MATCH.

  • T14

    At the conclusion of a MATCH, TEAMS must remain in their ALLIANCE STATION and HUMAN PLAYER AREAS until the ARENA reset signal is issued, as indicated by the PLAYER STATION LED strings illuminating green (as described in Section 2.2.8: The PLAYER STATIONS). 

  • T15

    ROBOTS will not be re-enabled after the conclusion of the MATCH, nor will Teams be permitted to tether to the ROBOT.

  • T16

    If, in the judgment of the Head Referee, an “ARENA fault” occurs that affects the outcome of the MATCH, the MATCH will be replayed.  

    ARENA faults include broken FIELD elements, power failure to a portion of the FIELD (tripping the circuit breaker in the PLAYER STATION is not considered a power failure), improper activation of the FMS, errors by FIELD personnel, etc. 


  • T17

    If an ALLIANCE wishes to call a TIMEOUT, they must submit their TIMEOUT coupon to the Head Referee within two (2) minutes of the ARENA reset signal preceding their MATCH.

    Once a TIMEOUT coupon is submitted and accepted by the Head Referee, the TIMEOUT coupon may not be withdrawn by the ALLIANCE.

  • T18

    There are no cascading TIMEOUTS. If an ALLIANCE calls a TIMEOUT during a FIELD TIMEOUT, the FIELD TIMEOUT will immediately expire and the ALLIANCE’S TIMEOUT will begin.

    If an ALLIANCE wishes to call a TIMEOUT during a FIELD TIMEOUT, it must still do so within two (2) minutes of the ARENA reset signal preceding their MATCH, per Rule T17.


  • T19

    TIMEOUTS are not transferrable between ALLIANCES. 

  • T2

    Wireless ROBOT control is only permitted on the FIELD or Practice Field. ROBOTS must be operated by tether when outside the FIELD or Practice Field. 

  • T20

    If during a TIMEOUT an ALLIANCE CAPTAIN determines that they need to call up a BACKUP TEAM, they must submit their BACKUP TEAM coupon to the Head Referee while there are still at least two (2) minutes remaining on the ARENA Timer.  After that point, they will not be allowed to utilize the BACKUP TEAM.

    Alternatively, an ALLIANCE CAPTAIN may choose to call up a BACKUP without using their TIMEOUT by informing the Head Referee, through the use of the BACKUP coupon, directly within two (2) minutes of the Head Referee issuing the ARENA reset signal preceding their MATCH.

    The ALLIANCE CAPTAIN must indicate on the BACKUP coupon which TEAM’S ROBOT will no longer be participating in MATCHES and initial the BACKUP coupon before it will be accepted by the Head Referee.

    In the case where the ALLIANCE CAPTAIN’S ROBOT is replaced by a BACKUP TEAM, the ALLIANCE CAPTAIN is allowed in the ALLIANCE STATION as a thirteenth ALLIANCE member so they can serve in an advisory role to their ALLIANCE.

    Once a BACKUP coupon is submitted and accepted by the Head Referee, the BACKUP coupon may not be withdrawn by the ALLIANCE.

  • T21

    An ALLIANCE may request neither a TIMEOUT nor a BACKUP TEAM after an Elimination MATCH is stopped by the Head Referee (e.g. due to an ARENA fault or a safety issue).  The sole exception is if the replay is due to an ARENA fault that rendered a ROBOT inoperable.

    If an Elimination MATCH is replayed per T21 the Head Referee has the option of calling a FIELD TIMEOUT.


  • T22

    The only equipment, provided it does not jam or interfere with the remote sensing capabilities of another Team, including vision systems, acoustic range finders, sonars, infrared proximity detectors, etc. (e.g. including imagery that, to a reasonably astute observer, mimics the VISION TARGET), that may be brought in to the ALLIANCE STATION are as follows:

    2. non-powered signaling devices,
    3. reasonable decorative items,
    4. special clothing and/or equipment required due to a disability
    5. devices used solely for the purpose of planning or tracking strategy provided they meet all of the following conditions:
      1. do not connect or attach to the OPERATOR CONSOLE
      2. do not connect or attach to the FIELD or ARENA
      3. do not connect or attach to another ALLIANCE member
      4. do not communicate with anything or anyone outside of the ARENA.
      5. do not include any form of enabled wireless electronic communication (e.g. radios, walkie-talkies, cell phones, Bluetooth communications, Wi-Fi, etc.)
      6. do not in any way affect the outcome of a MATCH, other than by allowing PLAYERS to plan or track strategy for the purposes of communication of that strategy to other ALLIANCE members.
  • T3

    If operating wirelessly on the Practice Field, ROBOTS must use the provided Practice Field radio for communication.

  • T4

    Teams may not set up their own 802.11a/b/g/n/ac (2.4GHz or 5GHz) wireless communication (e.g. access points or ad-hoc networks) in the venue.

    A wireless hot spot created by a cellular device is considered an access point.


  • T5

    No Team or Team member shall interfere or attempt to interfere with any other Team’s or FIRST’s wireless communication. Except as expressly allowed for purposes of communicating with the Team’s own ROBOT on the FIELD or a Practice Field, no Team or Team member shall connect or attempt to connect to any other Team’s or FIRST’s wireless network.

    Violation: Up to and including removal of the Team from the event. Legal action may also be pursued based on applicable law.

    Teams are encouraged to report suspected wireless security vulnerabilities to the FTA (if at the event) or to FIRST via the Wireless Security Feedback Form

  • T6

    A Team is only permitted to participate in a Qualification or Elimination MATCH and receive Qualification Points if their ROBOT has passed Inspection. If it is discovered after the start of the MATCH that a ROBOT did not pass Inspection and the Team participated in the MATCH, the entire ALLIANCE receives a RED CARD for that MATCH.

    Please take note of this rule. It is important that FRC Teams ensure their ALLIANCE partners have passed Inspection.  Allowing a partner that has not passed Inspection to play puts the ALLIANCE at risk of DISQUALIFICATION. Teams should check with their ALLIANCE partners early, and help them pass Inspection before competing.

    Sending TEAM members to the ARENA without the ROBOT is considered participating in a MATCH.



  • T7

    Any ROBOT construction technique or element that is not in compliance with the ROBOT Rules must be rectified before a ROBOT will be allowed to compete or continue competing. 

  • T8

    At the time of Inspection, the ROBOT must be presented with all MECHANISMS (including all COMPONENTS of each MECHANISM), configurations, and decorations that will be used on the ROBOT during the entire competition event.  It is acceptable, however, for a ROBOT to play MATCHES with a subset of the MECHANISMS that were present during Inspection.  Only MECHANISMS that were present during the Inspection may be added, removed or reconfigured between MATCHES.  If MECHANISMS are changed between MATCHES, the reconfigured ROBOT must still meet all Inspection criteria.

  • T9

    The ROBOT Bill of Materials (BOM), listing all items on the ROBOT and their relevant costs per Section 4.3: Budget Constraints, including KOP items, must be presented at the time of Inspection.

    Teams are encouraged to use the BOM Template posted on the FIRST website. Please note that while BOMs must be shown to Inspectors, Teams are not required to submit their BOMs to the Inspectors.